Dorothy Hodgkin (she was also called Dorothy Crowfoot and Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin) was amazing. She was only the 3rd woman to win the Nobel prize for Chemistry and the only British woman to ever have won one for science.
Nobel prizes are awarded to people who make HUGE changes to the way we think or make amazing discoveries in culture or science.
There are 6 categories that you can win a Nobel prize for:
Physiology and Medicine
and people win them for all kinds of things, they just have to
Dorothy Hodgkin won hers for working out 3D structures of biochemicals (these are chemicals to do with living things like medicines, vitamins and chemicals like hormones that are found in our bodies). To do this she used a process called x-ray Crystallography which means that she turned these molecules into crystals and then fired a whole load of x-rays at them to work out their 3D shape - pretty cool eh?